Table of Contents
NATO was established in 1949 when the USA, Canada, and ten European states signed the North Atlantic Treaty. The treaty emphasized protecting the security of NATO members, primarily Western European countries, from threats posed by the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, NATO adopted a strategy of expansion, believing that increasing its membership would improve its effectiveness in safeguarding European security.
NATO also recognized the significance of non-traditional threats such as instability, and terrorism outside its borders, which could potentially threaten the security of its members. As a result, NATO expanded its security concept to encompass political, economic, social, and environmental factors. Consequently, NATO began to address these new threats emerging outside the European continent, such as illegal immigration, counter-terrorism, and peacekeeping operations.
NATO's involvement in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014 marked the Alliance's first deployment outside Europe and its longest war to date. The mission ended with NATO's withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014 after failing to achieve its objective of building a Western-style democratic state. However, NATO maintained a training and advisory mission until withdrawing it in 2021.
My study aims to analyse the factors that led to NATO's failure in its mission in Afghanistan and its impact on the Alliance's willingness to undertake new missions outside Europe.